Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is one of the fastest acting enzymes found in nature. Its catalytic rate is usually around 105 reactions per second, many orders of magnitude higher than common enzymes found in plants and animals. Carbonic anhydrase is found in many important sites throughout the human body, such as the lungs, kidneys, red blood cells, and muscles. It catalyzes a very important elementary reaction, shown below:
During the reaction, the reactants must pass through the ‘transition state’ before becoming products. The transition state is defined as the state of highest energy along the progress of the reaction and is a high energy intermediate between the reactants and products.
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